Today, Quantum Computing (QC) is no longer a topic of academic research and conference presentations, as it has now made its industry debut, even though it is considered to be in its infant stage.
According to Wikipedia, “Quantum mechanics (also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scale of energy levels of atoms and sub-atomic particles.”
The concept of quantum mechanics was first introduced by Max Planck in 1990. He presented a theory that everything is made up of small particles, which he termed as “quanta”. Quantum physics is the branch of physics that studies small ‘waves’, to understand the behavior of energy and matter.Quantum is a Latin word which means ‘how much’. In quantum physics, the whole universe is a series of possibilities or predictions. Matter can move from one location to another, and the state of one particle is dependent on that of others, which puts a constraint on every other particle- this is termed as entanglement.
Quantum computing works on the rules of quantum mechanics, like entanglement and superposition. It can assist in solving complex challenges and some computational issues a lot faster than typical computing setups. Quantum computers are devices responsible for performing quantum computing. The principles and traits of quantum physics are used in data processing, and these work on the laws of mechanics.
Difference between classical computing and quantum computing
Quantum computing assists in solving computational problems. Classical computing assists only in exploring a subset of the possibilities as compared to quantum computing.
The silicon chips used in classical computers have millions of transistors that can be turned ‘on’ or ‘off’, and always present in a single state. The unit of information in classical computation is a bit, which can be either 0 or 1. All processing is done through logic gates that act on these bits. The states are noticeable and seen easily.
Quantum computers on the other hand use ‘quantum bits’ or ‘qubits’. With a 2-qubit quantum machine, 4 calculations can be done at a time. A 3-qubit allows to do 8 calculations and 4-qubit machine enables to do sixteen calculations at once. The state of a qubit depends on the state of another qubit.As a result, the qubits can be entangled, this being another trait of quantum mechanics.
This allows quantum computers to solve some type of difficult problems as well as do parallel processing, which is impossible in case of conventional computers. Qubits have the power to exponentially scale and speed up, as the computations occur in parallel.
Applications and uses of quantum computing:
Here we are listing a few industries where quantum algorithms can be applied:
So, overall we can say that quantum computing is the future that will allow industries to solve the problems that they would have never tried to solve before.